Shah Abbas

Abbas Safavi Shah born January 27, 1571 died January 19, 1629.
At 15 abbas led a successful revolt against his father Muhammad Khudabandah Shah ruleing Iran from 1588 – 1629.
Shah Abbas solidified the borders to near their present state today and moved the court to the defenseable city of Isphahan. Shah Abbas was a patron of both art and business and was famed for his fairness.
By 1588 Persia was beset by her neighbors. The Ottomen Turks had taken Tabriz and most of Azerbaijan including much of Northwest Persia. Persia was forced to pay tribute to the Ottoman Sultan. To the east the Uzbek came as far west as Mashad. First Abbas was able to drive the Uzbek back past the Firous Kohi ridge northeast of Herat in 1597. .
With the Uzbek the way he was able push the Ottoman Turks out of Azerbaijan and regain the great city of Tabriz. The Ottoman were militarily supirior to Persia but the Ottoman Sultan was willing to withdraw from Persia to focus his efforts on Christian Europe.
To the South east he set the border with the Mughals in Timurid India at Kandahar but I note that Kandahar passed between the Persians and the Mughals 6 times.
The military victories of Abbas Safavi were important but would have been meaningless without his farsighted economic policy. One interesting innovation was elevating the Armenians into important roles in trade and even lending them money. By subsidizing and encouraging trade he put Persia on a sound financial footing.
Artistically most people call the Abbas years the pinnacle of Persian Art. I instead see it as the beginning of the decline but then I am hopelessly stuck in the “evil years”.
Abbas was able to shift the balance of power from the tribal confederation to the state. This involved a policy of dividing the major tribes and creating new tribal confederations at the same time he was building a non-tribal standing army. Out of this policy emerged the Shahsevan and the Chahar Aymaq.
1622 Shah Abbas Safavi comtibuted the screens (darih) of brass and bronze and the Kashi tiles on the the dome of the Shrine Imam Husayn at Karbala. History of the Shrine of Imam Husayn at Karbala
Shah Abbas died in 1628 at the age of 70 in Mazanderan. His tomb is in Kashan, in the Shrine of Habib ibn-Musa. Shah Abbas I.
Hired British mercenaries Robert and Anthony Sherley to train his army and act as Ambassadors with Europe.